The engine block could have also incurred damage from a rapid cooling. As the block was very hot and when you hit the puddle of water the block rapidly cooled. If water got into your intake then water reached more then halfway up your engine. Like anything else when something is extremely hot and you dump something cooler on it, cracks will begin, whether visible or not. This in turn stresses many parts of the engine such as gaskets which crack and other components.
I do not see how water entering the intake would cause such a violent reaction. If a ton of water entered the engine you would not have been able to start it. If you were able to start it after letting it dry out then water entering the intake did not cause the engine block "exploding".